The early, organ-specific diagnosis of malignancy continues to be a major unmet medical need. Clearly the ability to establish an early diagnosis of cancer is dependent upon an intimate knowledge of the cancer's biology, which if understood at the molecular level should identify key diagnostic and therapeutic manipulation points. Advances in recombinant gene technology have provided significant understanding of the mechanisms of action of oncogenic viruses, as well as of cancer-associated genomic sequences (oncoÂ genes). This text will explore the known molecular genetic, biologÂ ical, and clinical knowledge of selected human neoplasms that demonstrate association with suspected oncogenic virus and those cytogenetic alterations that either cause or are caused by oncogene activation. The text first reviews the cytogenetics of human cancers linkÂ ing classical cytogenetics and molecular genetics. Avery A. SandÂ berg (Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, New York) reviews the leukemias and lymphomas, followed by S. Pathak (M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston, Texas), who reviews solid tumors. Functional consideration of oncogenes is highlighted by Keith C. Robbins and Stuart A. Aaronson (NO, Bethesda, Maryland) through their description of the v-sis locus sis and its gene product p.28 ; a protein that closely resembles human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF).
Influenza continues to be an ongoing problem despite the existence of vaccines and drugs. Disease outbreaks can occur relatively quickly as witnessed with the recent emergence of the influenza virus A/H1N1 pandemic. The development of new anti-influenza drugs is thus a major challenge.
This volume describes all aspects of the virus structure and function relevant to infection. The focus is on drug discovery of inhibitors to the enzyme sialidase, which plays a key role in the infectious lifecycle of the virus. Following an overview of the influenza virus, the haemagglutinin, the interactions with the cell receptors and the enzymology of virus sialidase, recent results in drug design are presented. These include a full coverage of the design, synthesis and evaluation of carbohydrate as well as non-carbohydrate influenza virus sialidase inhibitors. Further reviews of the clinical experience with influenza virus sialidase inhibitors and of the development of resistance to these inhibitor drugs complement the topic.
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